Merops contains over 190 customizable rules relating to references and citations.

Perhaps the most time-consuming stage of editing a document is ensuring references are accurately cited and displayed. Merops automates this task, giving you significant savings and improving quality.

The information below describes just a small percentage of the rules Merops can apply to references.

Cross-checking online

PubMed Crossref Amazon worldCat

Automatic corrections

Merops can use data retrieved online to alert discrepancies or automatically correct, e.g.:

  • characters missing accents
  • missing initials
  • spelling errors
  • Carre  CarréNEW
  • Pitt, E Pitt, EDNEW
  • Rodiguez RodriguezNEW

Automatic retrieval of missing details

Merops can use the data retrieved online to insert missing details, like a page range or volume number.


Merops can find your references online and insert hyperlinks to:

Merops can style the links to suit your house style, e.g.:

  • [doi:12.7626/0307-4859-141-11-201405580-00306]NEW
  • [Pubmed: 19128993]NEW

These links can enhance the quality and consistency of references, and can add value to the published product.


1.    Li, R, et al. (2000) Estrogen enhances uptake of amyloid β-protein by microglia derived from the human cortexJ. Neurochem. 751447–54. [Crossref] [PubMed]

Cross-checking within document

Merops automatically cross-checks citations with bibliographic lists, and can alert:

  • citations with no matching reference
  • uncited references
  • out of sequence numerical citations

Merops identifies and can correct discrepancies between a reference and its citation, including:

  • authors missing
  • too many authors
  • spelling errors
  • incorrect year
  • surname prefix missing
  • abbreviation discrepancies
  • ‘in press’ matches current year
  • (2018   Smith & Jones 2018)
  • (Smith & Jones 2018   Smith 2018)
  • (Paen 2018   Péan 2018)
  • (Smith 2017   Smith 2018)
  • (Smidt 2018   van Smidt 2018)
  • (WHO 2018   World Health Organization 2018)
  • (Smith, in press   Smith 2018)


Merops can identify and standardize reference citations to produce a consistent document that conforms to your preferred style.

Merops can now apply different preferences for citations in brackets and at first mention. NEW

Name–date system

Merops can standardize the sequence, punctuation, and formatting of author-date citations. Examples:

  • sort by date or by name, e.g. (Chopra, 2010; Malik, 1984) (Malik, 1984; Chopra, 2010)
  • use of 'et al.', e.g. Zhōu, et al., 2014 Zhōu, Xiè, and Shěn, 2014
  • Corrections from PubMed/Crossref, e.g. Shmit, 2011 Schmidt, 2011

Numerical system

Merops can standardize the formatting, position and punctuation of numerical citations:

  • Smith [23, 24, 25, 30]. Smith.23–25,30

Merops uses intelligent pattern recognition to ensure expressions like He2+, 10 m2, and χ2 are not misidentified as citations.

Reference lists

Merops uses massive dictionaries of surnames, organizations, publishers, journals, etc. in combination with intelligent pattern recognition to identify all components of a reference.

Merops can then standardize every aspect of these components, including formatting, punctuation and sequence.

Merops can also alert missing or unidentified reference parts.

Some advanced features include:

  • identify and remove paragraph breaks within entries
  • standardize use of et al., e.g. Zhōu, et al., 2014 Zhōu, Xiè, and Shěn, 2014
  • expand/abbreviate journal, e.g. (Br Med J  British Medical Journal)
  • elide or expand page ranges, e.g. (123–126  123–6)
  • different style preferences for references in footnotesNEW
  • apply or remove dash for repeated names, e.g. ——— (2012)… Fox (2012)…NEW
  • alert publishers with the wrong city as their addressNEW

Merops can standardize all kinds of references, including journal, book, thesis, and online references.

Legal references

Merops applies national standard conventions for the presentation of legal citations.

Standards covered:



[1] YANG, L.R. JNR. , Y. SHEN, R.B. LI, L. F. LUE, C. FINCH, & J. ROGERS. “Estrogen Enhances Uptake of Amyloid ß-Protein by Microglia Derived from the Human Cortex”. Journal of Neurochemistry 2000:75;1447-1454


1.    Yang, LR, Jr, et al. (2000) Estrogen enhances uptake of amyloid β-protein by microglia derived from the human cortexJ. Neurochem. 751447–54.

Here, amendments, based around a style template, have been made to every part of this reference automatically, potentially saving hours of work on lengthy texts.

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