Perhaps the most powerful part of Merops, both for saving you time, and increasing quality. Some of the key features are listed below.

Everything Merops does can be customized to match your style requirements, or made consistent within a document.


Cross-checking online

PubMed Crossref

Automatic corrections

Merops can use data retrieved online to alert discrepancies or automatically correct, e.g.:

  • characters missing accents
  • missing initials
  • spelling errors
  • Carre  Carré
  • Pitt, E Pitt, ED
  • Rodiguez Rodriguez

Automatic retrieval of missing details

Merops can use the data retrieved online to insert missing details, like a page range or volume number.


Merops can find your references online and insert hyperlinks to:

Merops can style the links to suit your house style, e.g.:

  • [doi:12.7626/0307-4859-141-11-201405580-00306]
  • [Pubmed: 19128993]

These links can enhance the quality and consistency of references, and can add value to the published product.


1.    Li, R, et al. (2000) Estrogen enhances uptake of amyloid β-protein by microglia derived from the human cortexJ. Neurochem. 751447–54. [Crossref] [PubMed]


Cross-checking within document

Merops automatically cross-checks citations with bibliographic lists, and can alert:

  • citations with no matching reference
  • uncited references
  • out of sequence numerical citations

Merops identifies and can correct discrepancies between a reference and its citation, including:

  • authors missing
  • too many authors
  • spelling errors
  • incorrect year
  • surname prefix missing
  • abbreviation discrepancies
  • ‘in press’ matches current year
  • (2020   Smith & Jones 2020)
  • (Smith & Jones 2020   Smith 2020)
  • (Paen 2020   Péan 2020)
  • (Smith 2019   Smith 2020)
  • (Smidt 2020   van Smidt 2020)
  • (WHO 2020   World Health Organization 2020)
  • (Smith, in press   Smith 2020)


Merops can identify and standardize reference citations to produce a consistent document that conforms to your preferred style.

Merops can now apply different preferences for citations in brackets and at first mention.

Name–date system

Merops can standardize the sequence, punctuation, and formatting of author-date citations. Examples:

  • sort by date or by name, e.g. (Chopra, 2010; Malik, 1984) (Malik, 1984; Chopra, 2010)
  • use of 'et al.', e.g. Zhōu, et al., 2014 Zhōu, Xiè, and Shěn, 2014
  • Corrections from PubMed/Crossref, e.g. Shmit, 2011 Schmidt, 2011

Numerical system

Merops can standardize the formatting, position and punctuation of numerical citations:

  • Smith [23, 24, 25, 30]. Smith.23–25,30

Merops uses intelligent pattern recognition to ensure expressions like He2+, 10 m2, and χ2 are not misidentified as citations.


Reference lists

Merops uses massive dictionaries of surnames, organizations, publishers, journals, etc. in combination with intelligent pattern recognition to identify all components of a reference.

Merops can then standardize every aspect of these components, including formatting, punctuation and sequence.

Merops can also alert missing or unidentified reference parts.

Some advanced features include:

  • identify and remove paragraph breaks within entries
  • standardize use of et al., e.g. Zhōu, et al., 2014 Zhōu, Xiè, and Shěn, 2014
  • expand/abbreviate journal, e.g. (Br Med J   British Medical Journal)
  • elide or expand page ranges, e.g. (123–126   123–6)
  • different style preferences for references in footnotes
  • apply or remove dash for repeated names, e.g. ——— (2012)… Fox (2012)…
  • alert publishers with the wrong city as their address

Merops can standardize all kinds of references, including journal, book, thesis, and online references.

Legal references

Merops applies national standard conventions for the presentation of legal citations.

Standards covered:



[1] YANG, L.R. JNR. , Y. SHEN, R.B. LI, L. F. LUE, C. FINCH, & J. ROGERS. “Estrogen Enhances Uptake of Amyloid ß-Protein by Microglia Derived from the Human Cortex”. Journal of Neurochemistry 2000:75;1447-1454


1.    Yang, LR, Jr, et al. (2000) Estrogen enhances uptake of amyloid β-protein by microglia derived from the human cortexJ. Neurochem. 751447–54.

Here, amendments, based around a style template, have been made to every part of this reference automatically, potentially saving hours of work on lengthy texts.

reference lists
See also:
Tables and figures
Document analysis
Automatic markup
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