Merops contains over 170 customizable rules relating to references and citations.

Perhaps the most time-consuming stage of editing a document is ensuring references are accurately cited and displayed. Merops automates this task, giving you significant savings and improving quality.

The information below describes just a small percentage of the rules Merops can apply to references.

Cross-checking online

PubMed     Crossref     Amazon     worldCat    

Automatic corrections

Merops can use data retrieved online to alert discrepancies or automatically correct, e.g.:

  • characters missing accents (Carre Carré)
  • missing initials (Pitt, E Pitt, ED)
  • spelling errors (Rodiguez Rodriguez)

Automatic retrieval of missing details

Merops can use the data retrieved online to insert missing details, like a page range or volume number.


Merops can find your references online and insert hyperlinks to:

Merops can style the links to suit your house style, e.g.:

These links can enhance the quality and consistency of references, and can add value to the published product.


1.    Yang, LR, Jr, et al. (2000) Estrogen enhances uptake of amyloid ß-protein by microglia derived from the human cortex. J. Neurochem. 75, 1447-54. [Crossref] [PubMed]

Cross-checking within document

Merops automatically cross-checks citations with bibliographic lists, and can alert:

Merops identifies and can correct discrepancies between a reference and its citation, including:

  • authors missing (2014 Smith & Jones 2014)
  • too many authors (Smith & Jones 2014 Smith 2014)
  • spelling errors (Paen 2014 Péan 2014)
  • incorrect year (Smith 2013 Smith 2014)
  • surname prefix missing (Smidt 2014 van Smidt 2014)
  • abbreviation discrepancies (WHO 2014 World Health Organization 2014)
  • ‘in press’ matches current year (Smith, in press Smith 2014)


Merops can identify and standardize reference citations to produce a consistent document that conforms to your preferred style.

Merops can now apply different preferences for citations in brackets and at first mention.

author-date system

Merops can standardize the sequence, punctuation, and formatting of author-date citations. Examples:

Numerical system

Merops can standardize the formatting, position and punctuation of numerical citations:

Merops uses intelligent pattern recognition to ensure expressions like He2+, 10 m2, and χ2 are not misidentified as citations.

Reference lists

Merops uses massive dictionaries of surnames, organizations, publishers, journals, etc. in combination with intelligent pattern recognition to identify all components of a reference.

Merops can then standardize every aspect of these components, including formatting, punctuation and sequence.

Merops can also alert missing or unidentified reference parts.

Some advanced features include:

Merops can standardize all kinds of references, including journal, book, thesis, and online references.

Legal references

Merops applies national standard conventions for the presentation of legal citations.

Standards covered:



[1] YANG, L.R. JNR. , Y. SHEN, R.B. LI, L. F. LUE, C. FINCH, & J. ROGERS. “Estrogen Enhances Uptake of Amyloid ß-Protein by Microglia Derived from the Human Cortex”. Journal of Neurochemistry 2000:75;1447-1454


1.    Yang, LR, Jr, et al. (2000) Estrogen enhances uptake of amyloid ß-protein by microglia derived from the human cortex. J. Neurochem. 75, 1447-54.

Here, amendments, based around a style template, have been made to every part of this reference automatically, potentially saving hours of work on lengthy texts.

Other modules